Molecular marker development based on diversity of genes associated with pigment biosynthetic pathways to support breeding for novel colors in Phalaenopsis
Phalaenopsis is one of the major orchid species grown in Indonesia. The flower characteristics and colors of this orchid are very diverse and beautiful. Their flower colors depend on the existence of pigments, such as carotenoid and anthocyanin. A number of key enzymes are known to play important roles in carotene and anthocyanin pigment formation, such as: PSY, CHS, DFR, F3'H, and F3'-5'H. Activity of those enzymes in flower organs may in turn determine the color of Phalaenopsis flowers. Coding genes for those enzymes have also been isolated and their sequences determined either in orchids or other ornamental crops. Our research objectives are to isolate and characterize PSY, CHS, DFR, F3'-H, F3-H, and F3'-5'-H genes from Phalaenopsis species, evaluate nucleotide sequence variability among DNA sequences of those genes, and develop gene specific molecular markers to support breeding for unique Phalaenopsis flower color. We have isolated fragments of PSY, CHS, DFR, F3RSQUOH, and F3'-5'H genes from various Phalaenopsis species having different flower colors. DNA sequence variability among the isolated genes has also been evaluated and the existence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified. We have designed single nucleotide amplified polymorphism (SNAP) primer pairs based on the existing SNP and used the designed SNP specific primers to generate gene specific SNAP markers. Moreover, we have used the gene specific SNAP markers for genetic diversity analysis of diverse Phalaenopsis sp. with different flower colors to evaluate effectiveness of the markers to predict flower color. Progress of those investigations will be discussed in the paper.
Haristianita, M.D., Handini, A.S. and Sukma, D. 2017. Molecular marker development based on diversity of genes associated with pigment biosynthetic pathways to support breeding for novel colors in Phalaenopsis. Acta Hort. (ISHS) 1167:305-312
flower colors, carotene-, anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, SNP, SNAP marker