Genetic structure and differentiation among North and South European apple germplasm
In order to investigate the genetic structure and differentiation among north and south European apple germplasm, 141 apple accessions maintained in ex situ collections in Norway and 110 traditional and international apple accessions from Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) were analyzed using 8 microsatellite markers. Bayesian analyses, based on the microsatellite data, grouped most of the accessions into two major clusters. The first cluster consisted mainly of traditional and international B&H accessions, as well as Norwegian accessions derived mostly from foreign or formal breeding programs ('James Grieve', 'Katja', 'Summerred', 'Bramleys Seedling', 'Elstar', 'Katinka', 'Belle de Boskoop', 'Jacques Lebel', etc.). The second cluster consisted almost exclusively of traditional Norwegian accessions. Further analyses divided each cluster into two sub-clusters. Cluster 1.1 included Norwegian accessions derived from foreign or commercial breeding programs, international cultivars and B&H accessions introduced from Europe and North America during the rule of Austria-Hungarian Empire. Cluster 1.2 included traditional B&H accessions introduced during the reign of Ottoman Empire. Cluster 2.1 and 2.2 consisted mainly of traditional apple accession from Norway. The results obtained indicate a clear genetic structure and differentiation among north and south European apple germplasm, presumably due to climate adaptation and selection.
Kanlić, K., Kalamujić, B., Pojskić, N., Grahić, J., Gaši, F., Asdal, Å. and Meland, M. 2017. Genetic structure and differentiation among North and South European apple germplasm. Acta Hort. (ISHS) 1172:195-200
microsatellites, Bayesian analyses, climate adaptation and selection