Haibo Liu, C.M. Baldwin, F.W. Totten, L.B. McCarty
Nutrient use efficiency by turfgrasses is still a major challenge for turf managers world wide. Limited research exists on sports turf foliar nutrient absorption and comparisons with granular fertilizer. However, to date, findings on foliar fertilization include: 1) younger leaves demonstrate great foliar nutrient absorption rate than old leaves; 2) lower (abaxial) leaf surfaces (with more stomata) absorb more nutrients than the upper (adaxial) side of the leaf; 3) neutral molecule absorption is more efficient than cation (positively charged ions) and anion (negatively charged ions) absorption; 4) most of 17 plant nutrients including some beneficial elements have been reported to be absorbed by leaves; 5) cuticle penetration is possible and is genetically regulated; 6) the total fertilizer input may be reduced by using foliar fertilization; 7) there may be synergetic effects by using foliar fertilizers and plant growth regulators; and 8) it is environmentally safer to use more foliar fertilizers. Thus, this review is trying to provide the most updated research results on turfgrass foliar fertilization including sports turfgrasses.
Haibo Liu, , Baldwin, C.M., Totten, F.W. and McCarty, L.B. 2008. FOLIAR FERTILIZATION FOR TURFGRASSES. Acta Hort. (ISHS) 783:323-332
nutrient use efficiency, sports turf, foliar fertilizers, foliar nutrient absorption, granular fertilizers, turfgrasses, cuticle, cuticular absorption

Acta Horticulturae