EARLY DETECTION OF GRAPE PHYLLOXERA (DAKTULOSPHAIRA VITIFOLIAE FITCH) INFESTATION THROUGH IDENTIFICATION OF CHEMICAL BIOMARKERS
Principle components analysis (PCA) was used to assess the presence of phylloxera associated biomarker compounds in G1 phylloxera infested Vitis Vinifera L. vines in the Yarra Valley, Victoria. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed strongly upregulated flavonoid secondary metabolites in 80% methanol:water vine leaf extracts with mass spectroscopy (MS) analysis yielding the identification of four flavonoid compounds: isorhamnetin glycoside, rutin, kaempherol glycoside and quercetin glycoside. Flavanoids and other phenolics are a common class of bioactive compounds that form part of the endogenous or induced biochemical defence mechanisms employed by plants to counter infectious pathogens and insect attack, among other functions. The specificity of these flavonoid compounds to phylloxera infestation is currently being validated through field and glasshouse-based trials against nutrient and water stress. Successful correlation of these compounds to phylloxera infestation would provide a platform for laboratory-based early detection, leading to more timely advice to viticulturalists, more rapid instigation of quarantine protocols and a great reduction in losses associated with late detections of phylloxera infestations.
Benheim, D., Rochfort, S., Ezernieks, V., Korosi, G.A., Powell, K.S., Robertson, E. and Potter, I.D. 2011. EARLY DETECTION OF GRAPE PHYLLOXERA (DAKTULOSPHAIRA VITIFOLIAE FITCH) INFESTATION THROUGH IDENTIFICATION OF CHEMICAL BIOMARKERS. Acta Hort. (ISHS) 904:17-24
phylloxera, metabolomics, detection, biomarkers, principal component analysis, LCMS, HPLC