USAGE OF ORNAMENTAL PLANTS IN IZNIK TILES
Tile is the interior and/or outer surface of glazed ceramic. Tile art, decorated with traditional motifs and special dyes, has developed as a type of art in relation with architecture. According to the data gathered from archaeological excavation in central Asia, Turks tackled tiles as an art form in the earlier period. Kashi tiles, as called by Turks, named by the art historians due to the Kashan city placed in the east of Kavir desert. The usage of tiles in architecture was called Kashi until the 18th century in the Ottoman period and other goods such as plates, vases and bowls were called Evani. Turks changed the name of Kashi to tile in order to emphasize on its quality and help it gain reputation. In the 14th century, Anatolian tile art gained a new dimension with the Ottoman. Especially between the 15th and 17th century, Iznik had become an important center of ceramic and tile production. Tiles produced in Iznik were used to decorate walls of palaces in Istanbul. Stylized motifs used in Iznik tiles were simplified forms of nature. Frequent usage of these motifs is found in the 15th and 16th century. Stylized naturalistic motifs which were used in Iznik tiles were most preferred flowers in the Islamic world. Dianthus caryophyllus, Rosa and Tulipa were among the most widely used motifs. Viola, Lilium, Narcissus, Hyacinthus and Colchinum autumnale were also represented in the decorative tiles of the 16th century. In addition to flowers, stylized floral motifs of almond and cherry trees, hanging grapes and Cupressus tree created other naturalistic motifs. Cupressus is the symbol of life, death, the universe and settled layout. In this research, the usage of plants as an important subject of architecture is investigated in Iznik tile and ceramic. Mythological and historical aspects of Islamic philosophy in the flower and tree planting, as an important part of stylized motifs of Iznik tiles, are at the point of attention and explanation.
Aliasghari Khabbazi, P. and Yazgan, M.E. (2013). USAGE OF ORNAMENTAL PLANTS IN IZNIK TILES. Acta Hortic. 1002, 271-276
Ottoman garden, garden, ornamental plants, Iznik tiles, flowers