THE EFFECT OF CANOPY POSITION ON APPLE FRUIT EATING AND APPEARANCE PREFERENCES BY CONSUMERS
Apples experience different microclimatic conditions determined by their position in the canopy. These environmental differences affect the internal and external quality of the fruit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of apples from inside and outside the canopy for Starking and Granny Smith. Colour assessment was carried out and maturity indexing was performed by measuring firmness, soluble solids concentration (TSS), and titratable acidity (TA). Descriptive sensory analysis using a trained panel of eight judges assessed the fruit for taste and texture sensory characteristics. The approximately 100 consumers participating in the consumer study were presented with peeled slices of the apples as well as pictures of the apples, and they scored their liking for taste and appearance of the fruit using a nine point hedonic scale. Results showed that consumers preferred the taste of outside compared to inside canopy fruit in both cultivars. The appearance of outside canopy Starking was preferred over the inside canopy fruit owing to their redder colour. On the contrary, the red blush on Granny Smith was not appreciated by consumers who preferred the appearance of inside canopy fruit. Correlations using Principle Component Analysis (PCA) showed that outside canopy fruit were generally associated with high TSS and TSS:TA ratio, sweetness and apple flavour, whilst inside canopy fruit were associated with higher TA and sourness. The data indicate that there are differences between inside and outside canopy fruit and that these differences can be discerned by consumers.
Hamadziripi, E., Theron, K.I., Muller, M. and Steyn, W.J. (2013). THE EFFECT OF CANOPY POSITION ON APPLE FRUIT EATING AND APPEARANCE PREFERENCES BY CONSUMERS. Acta Hortic. 1007, 487-493
apple colour, apple taste, sensory analysis