EFECTO DEL TOSTADO SOBRE EL PERFIL DE ÁCIDOS GRASOS DE MANTECA DE CACAO PROVENIENTES DE BARLOVENTO-VENEZUELA, EXTRAÍDA POR DOS MÉTODOS -
EFFECT OF ROASTING ON THE FATTY ACID PROFILE OF COCOA BUTTER THAT WAS EXTRACTED BY TWO METHODS, FROM BARLOVENTO, VENEZUELA

R.H. Gutiérrez, M. Lares, E.E. Pérez, C. Álvarez
The Venezuela cocoa is very famous worldwide for its quality and flavor. In the Miranda state (Venezuela), cocoa hybrids of good quality are found. Cocoa fat has functional properties that are affected by extraction methods and postharvest processes: fermentation, drying and roasting. These effects have been studied a little, so in this study, in order to increase information, the effect of roasting on the proximal composition and fatty acid profile of cocoa butter extracted by two methods from cocoa beans grown in Barlovento, Miranda was researched. The proximal composition of the cocoa beans was evaluated following the official methods of AOAC (2000) and Covenin (1995) and the butter was extracted by the methods of pressing and solvents. In addition, the yields were calculated. In the cocoa butter extracted by both methods, the fatty acids profile was assessed by HPLC and the ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids was calculated. The results were processed using the SPSS program (2004). It can be concluded that there is an effect from roasting on the moisture, crude fat, and total sugar contents. The yield obtained by extraction with the solvent method was greater (30.7-32.0%) than the yield obtained by the pressing method (46.2-45.6%). The fatty acids: stearic, oleic, and palmitic were the most representative, followed by linoleic and palmitoleic fatty acids. It should be noted that the solvent extraction process did not remove C14 or C20:2n-6 and the roasting process affected the presence of C17:0. These results establish the differences between the cocoa butter production and profile as a function of the post-harvest treatments and, also, as a result of the methods of extraction.

Resumen:
En este estudio se evaluó el efecto del tostado sobre la composición proximal y perfil de ácidos grasos de la manteca extraída por dos métodos de los granos de cacao proveniente de la zona de Barlovento, estado Miranda. Para ellos se procedió a la caracterización proximal de los granos de cacao y a la extracción de la manteca mediante prensado y uso de solventes, así como el rendimiento en función del método de extracción. En las mantecas extraídas por ambos métodos, se evaluó el perfil de ácidos grasos por HPLC y se calculó la relación de ácidos grasos saturados e insaturado. Se concluye que hay un efecto del tostado sobre el contenido de humedad, grasa cruda y azucares totales. El rendimiento obtenido por el método de extracción con solvente es mayor que el obtenido por el método de prensado. Los ácidos grasos esteárico, oleico y palmítico, son los ácidos grasos más representativos, seguidos por los ácidos linoleico y palmitoleico. Se debe destacar que el proceso de extracción con solvente no extrae el C14:0 y el C20:2 n 6, y el proceso de tostado afecta la presencia del C17:0. Con los resultados podríamos establecer un posible perfil de calidad de las mantecas en función tratamiento de post cosechas y métodos de extracción y con ello darle un valor agregado al producto final.
Gutiérrez, R.H., Lares, M., Pérez, E.E. and Álvarez, C. (2014). EFECTO DEL TOSTADO SOBRE EL PERFIL DE ÁCIDOS GRASOS DE MANTECA DE CACAO PROVENIENTES DE BARLOVENTO-VENEZUELA, EXTRAÍDA POR DOS MÉTODOS -
EFFECT OF ROASTING ON THE FATTY ACID PROFILE OF COCOA BUTTER THAT WAS EXTRACTED BY TWO METHODS, FROM BARLOVENTO, VENEZUELA. Acta Hortic. 1016, 119-123
DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2014.1016.15
https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2014.1016.15
cocoa, proximate composition, fatty acids, postharvest benefit
Palabras clave: cacao, composición proximal, ácidos grasos, beneficio poscosecha
Spanish

Acta Horticulturae