EFECTO DE LA ÉPOCA DE COSECHA Y BENEFICIO SOBRE LA COMPOSICIÓN PROXIMAL Y MINERAL DEL CACAO DE CHUAO, ESTADO ARAGUA, VENEZUELA -
EFFECT OF HARVEST TIME AND POSTHARVEST PROCESSES ON THE PROXIMATE AND MINERAL COMPOSITION OF COCOA BEANS FROM THE CHUAO REGION, STATE OF ARAGUA, VENEZUELA

M. Lares, E.E. Pérez, C. Álvarez, R.H. Gutiérrez
The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the harvest time and post-harvest processes on the proximate composition and mineral profile of cocoa beans that were gathered from crops growing at the of Chuao region, Aragua state, Venezuela, from June through August 2004 (San Juanera crop). In order to achieve the objectives focused in this research, almond samples previously fermented for 5 days, and sundried 6 days, were roasted under laboratory controlled conditions at 150°C for 30 min. Proximate composition (moisture content, crude protein, crude fat and ash), total and reducing sugars, and mineral profile were determined according to the methods described by Venezuela. The results are indicating statistically significant differences in (P≤0,05) the proximal composition, specifically in moisture content and crude fat as well as in the content of total and reducing sugars, by effect of the roasting process. In contrast, the effect of harvest time was reflected in the ash content, which is attributed to agro-climatic factors, since cocoa is dried in the sun on yards, exposed to the weather, which results in air pollution and soil. Mineral content in the air and the yards is highly dependent on the clime and time. The roasting treatment and harvest time have affected the contents of zinc and copper at the mineral profile. This variation of the minerals present in the beans could be due to fertilizer and/or the presences of these micro elements in the ground during that time, as mentioned above. It was concluded that both factors influence the composition of the cocoa beans.

Resumen:
El presente estudio tuvo como finalidad, evaluar el efecto del tiempo de cosecha y el beneficio sobre la composición proximal y perfil mineral de almendras de cacao de la cosecha San Juanera recolectada desde Junio hasta Agosto en la región de Chuao, estado Aragua, Venezuela. Las almendras previamente fermentadas durante 5 días y secadas al sol durante 6 días, se tostaron bajo condiciones controladas de laboratorio a 150°C por 30 min. Se determinaron la composición proximal (contenidos de humedad, proteína cruda, grasa cruda y ceniza), azúcares totales y reductores y el perfil mineral. Los resultados indican que existe un efecto significativo del proceso de tostado sobre la composición proximal; específicamente en el contenido de humedad y grasa cruda, así como también, en el contenido de azúcares totales y reductores. En contraste, el efecto de la época de cosecha se vio reflejado en el contenido de ceniza; lo cual se atribuye a factores agroclimáticos; ya que el cacao es secado en patios de secado al sol, lo que trae como consecuencia contaminación del aire y del suelo. En el perfil mineral se afectó el contenido de zinc y cobre por efecto del tratamiento de tostado y tiempo de cosecha. Esta variación de los minerales presentes en el grano podría depender de los fertilizantes y/o a la presencia de estos microelementos en el suelo durante esa época.
Lares, M., Pérez, E.E., Álvarez, C. and Gutiérrez, R.H. (2014). EFECTO DE LA ÉPOCA DE COSECHA Y BENEFICIO SOBRE LA COMPOSICIÓN PROXIMAL Y MINERAL DEL CACAO DE CHUAO, ESTADO ARAGUA, VENEZUELA -
EFFECT OF HARVEST TIME AND POSTHARVEST PROCESSES ON THE PROXIMATE AND MINERAL COMPOSITION OF COCOA BEANS FROM THE CHUAO REGION, STATE OF ARAGUA, VENEZUELA . Acta Hortic. 1016, 125-130
DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2014.1016.16
https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2014.1016.16
chemical characterization, mineral profile, Theobroma cacao, benefit
Palabras clave: caracterización química, perfil mineral, Theobroma cacao, beneficio
Spanish

Acta Horticulturae