A PRELIMINARY SURVEY OF FUNGI ON OPIUM POPPY IN SLOVAKIA
A survey of fungal populations in discolored tissues of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) plants was conducted throughout Slovakia in 2007-2009. More than 20 fungal taxa were isolated from opium poppy stems, leaves, capsules and seeds periodically sampled during three growing seasons. Incidence of fungi varied annually due to, in part, differences in rainfall. Symptoms of stem rot, leaf and capsule spot were observed during field surveys in commercial opium poppy. Fungal assemblages present in necrotic tissues of P. somniferum were determined at three sites in Slovakia. Fungi were identified by examination of fruiting bodies or by isolation. Of the different plant parts, the highest number of fungi were isolated from stems followed by leaves and capsules. In diseased stem tissues Crivellia papaveracea, Brachycladium penicillatum, Fusarium sp., Colletotrichum sp., and Alternaria sp. were the most common. In diseased leaf tissues Peronospora arborescens, Erysiphe cruciferarum, Botrytis cinerea, and Alternaria sp. were the most common. The ability of fungi parasitic on P. somniferum capsules was studied, with the aim of determining total mycoflora. Dominant fungi on capsule lesions were C. papaveracea, B. cinerea, Fusarium sp., and Alternaria brassicae var. somniferi. A total number of 15 fungal species belonging to 12 genera were isolated from seeds. Based on the culture phenotype, these strains were identified as Alternaria sp., Arthobotrys sp., Aspergillus sp., Botrytis sp., Epicoccum sp., Fusarium sp. (F. equiseti, F. poae), Mucor sp., Penicillium sp., Phoma sp., Rhizoctonia sp., Rhizopus sp., and Stemphylium sp. Among them, Brachycladium papaveris and Alternaria alternate had higher isolating rate than others.
Pastirčák, M. and Fejér, J. (2014). A PRELIMINARY SURVEY OF FUNGI ON OPIUM POPPY IN SLOVAKIA. Acta Hortic. 1036, 157-162
mycoflora, fungal diseases, Papaver somniferum