SPATIOTEMPORAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF ENERGY AND WATER CONSUMPTION IN OPEN, SEMI-CLOSED AND CLOSED LOOP HEAT PUMP GREENHOUSE SYSTEMS, AND ASSOCIATED MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES IN THE CANADIAN NORTH
The specific objective of this study was to investigate regional spatiotemporal distributions and spatial correlations of energy and water consumption in open, semi-closed and completely closed greenhouse systems in the Canadian North. Latitude and longitude significantly predicted total energy consumptions while latitude also predicted water consumptions in semi-closed and open heat pump systems. Semi-closed and open heat pump systems were the most energy conserving systems while closed system was the most water conserving. Water consumptions in all systems increased towards the southwest where all systems had their lowest energy consumptions. Semi-closed heat pump system transforms the unfavorable regions in the Canadian North into potential greenhouse regions, and opens up northern populations limited access to locally produced fresh vegetables for better public health and local sustainability.
Yildiz, I., Yue, J. and Lowrey, J. (2014). SPATIOTEMPORAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF ENERGY AND WATER CONSUMPTION IN OPEN, SEMI-CLOSED AND CLOSED LOOP HEAT PUMP GREENHOUSE SYSTEMS, AND ASSOCIATED MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES IN THE CANADIAN NORTH. Acta Hortic. 1037, 171-178
spatiotemporal distributions, spatial correlations, energy conservation, water conservation, semi-closed greenhouses, closed greenhouses, heat pumps