ADVANCES IN BIOLOGY, ECOLOGY AND CONTROL OF XIPHINEMA INDEX, THE NEMATODE VECTOR OF GRAPEVINE FAN LEAF VIRUS
The ectoparasitic dagger nematode, Xiphinema index, transmits Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV), which is responsible for a progressive degeneration of grapevines occurring across the worlds vineyards. Since 2000, new data on the biology and ecology of the vector nematode and on the virus-nematode and plant-nematode interactions have contributed to elicit new alternatives to chemicals for nematode control. Molecular tools have allowed reliable nematode identification and new insights have been acquired into its genetic diversity at both the world and local scales and into its mode of reproduction. The long virus retention by the nematode in the bare soil combined with the location of the nematode in deep soil layers have highlighted the interest of both the development of nematode-resistant rootstocks as priority control alternative and the fundamental studies on molecular mechanisms of this specific virus retention. Some Muscadine accessions are currently the most efficient resistance sources. An optimization of their use through the characterization of Vitis × Muscadinia F1 and BC1 material for spectrum, histological mechanisms, genetics and durability is in progress. In the perspective of an integrated control, the resistance strategy could be completed by fallow crops showing an antagonistic (direct or indirect) effect on nematode numbers between two successive grapevine plantings.
Esmenjaud, D., Demangeat, G., van Helden, M. and Ollat, N. (2014). ADVANCES IN BIOLOGY, ECOLOGY AND CONTROL OF XIPHINEMA INDEX, THE NEMATODE VECTOR OF GRAPEVINE FAN LEAF VIRUS . Acta Hortic. 1045, 67-73
rootstocks, grapevine, genetic diversity, virus-vector interaction, Muscadinia