PHYTOPATHOGENS OF HAZELNUT (CORYLUS AVELLANA L.) IN SOUTHERN CHILE

J.C. Guerrero, S.F. Pérez, E.Q. Ferrada, L.Q. Cona , E.T. Bensch
European hazelnut is distributed in Chile from Del Maule region to the region of Los Lagos, with around of 10,000 ha planted and with projection for the year 2020 of 20,000 ha. To know phytosanitary aspects of the hazelnut commercial orchards according to different soil and climatic conditions is a basic and fundamental aspect in decision taking in a context of phythosanitary integrated plant management. Economic losses caused by phytopathogens in plants and postharvest hazelnuts, have not been of economic significance in Chile, however, it is a priority and necessity to develop an appropriate diagnosis in order to take preventive or curative management actions to minimize the economic loss that could be caused by diseases in plants and the fruit.
For the identification of phytopathogens they were isolated in selective and non-selective cultivation media, morphologically and biochemically characterized and also pathogenicity tests were carried out. The fungus and bacteria isolated and symptomatic pieces of stems and twigs were sent to CABI-UK, to corroborate the identification.
Up to now the following phytopathogenic fungi have been detected: Diaporthe sp. and Phomopsis sp. (stem and twig cankers), Diplodia sp. (stem and twig cankers), Phytophthora sp. (root rot), Armillaria mellea (white rot roots), Cylindrocarpon sp. (root rot), Macrophomina phaseolina (carbonaceous rot of roots) and Sclerotinia minor (root rot in nursery), Botrytis cinerea has been detected inside and outside the fruit, whereas on empty and abnormal nut shape Alternaria alternata, Fusarium sp., Aspergillus niger, Penicillium spp., Rhizopus stolonifer were detected and mainly Trichothecium roseum was found. Also, in lignified wood with canker and twig dieback symptoms Botryodiplodia sp. and Camarosporium sp. have been detected. The phytopathogen bacteria that have been reported are Xanthomonas arboricola pv. corylina (blight and bacterial canker), Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (bacterial canker) and Agrobacterium tummefaciens (crown and roots galls). Occasionally Apple mosaic virus (ApMV) was detected. The incidence and control of these pathogens are partially quantified in relation to cultivar and edaphoclimatic conditions.
Guerrero, J.C., Pérez, S.F., Ferrada, E.Q., Cona , L.Q. and Bensch, E.T. (2014). PHYTOPATHOGENS OF HAZELNUT (CORYLUS AVELLANA L.) IN SOUTHERN CHILE. Acta Hortic. 1052, 269-273
DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2014.1052.36
https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2014.1052.36
European hazelnut, plant pathogen, postharvest diseases, Chile
English

Acta Horticulturae