EFFECTS OF ELDERBERRY JUICE FROM DIFFERENT GENOTYPES ON OXIDATIVE AND INFLAMMATORY RESPONSES IN MICROGLIAL CELLS
Many species of berries are nutritious food and offer health benefits. However, among the different types of berries, information on health effects of American elderberries (Sambucus nigra subsp. Canadensis) has been lacking and little is known about whether elderberry consumption can confer neuroprotective effects on the central nervous system. Microglial cells constitute a unique class of immune cells and exhibit characteristic properties to carry out multifunctional duties in the brain. Activation of microglial cells has been implicated in brain injury and in many types of neurodegenerative diseases. Our recent studies demonstrated the ability for endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) and interferon gamma (IFNγ) to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) in murine microglial cells (BV-2) through activating NADPH oxidase and the MAPK pathways. In this study, BV-2 microglial cells were used to examine effects of elderberry juice obtained from different genotypes on oxidative and inflammatory responses induced by LPS and IFNγ. Results show that Wyldewood extract demonstrated antioxidant properties by inhibiting IFN-induced ROS production and p-ERK1/2 expression. On the other hand, most juice extracts exerted small effects on LPS-induced NO production and some extracts showed an increase in NO production upon stimulation with IFNγ. The disparity of responses on ROS and NO production from different extracts suggests possible presence of unknown endogenous factor(s) in the extract in promoting the IFNγ-induced iNOS synthesis pathway.
Jiang, J.M., Zong, Y., Chuang, D.Y., Lei, W., Lu, C.-H., Gu, Z., Fritsche, K.L., Thomas, A.L., Lubahn, D.B., Simonyi, A. and Sun, G.Y. (2015). EFFECTS OF ELDERBERRY JUICE FROM DIFFERENT GENOTYPES ON OXIDATIVE AND INFLAMMATORY RESPONSES IN MICROGLIAL CELLS. Acta Hortic. 1061, 281-288
LPS, interferon gamma, nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species, ERK1/2, Sambucus