A REVIEW OF PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECTS AND CLINICAL EFFICACY OF FRUIT PRODUCTS AND FUNCTIONAL FOODS FROM ELDERBERRY (SAMBUCUS SPP.) AS COMPARED WITH CHOKEBERRY (ARONIA MELANOCARPA)

S. Chrubasik
Elderberry (Sambucus spp.) fruit belongs to the armamentarium of traditional European herbal medicines. Today we know that the active principle of elderberry fruit is more potent than that of other black berries but inferior to that of black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa). The latter fruit contains a similar active principle to elderberry fruit with a higher anti-oxidative effect. Unfortunately, elderberry fruit is less well investigated than black chokeberry, but the elderberry effects are presumably similar. The pharmacological effects include antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, immunomodulatory and antiproliferative activities. The putative effects include protection from damage of the gastric mucosa, liver, and pancreas. The present evidence of clinical efficacy is insufficient for any health claim due to the few studies available. The most promising effect of elderberry fruit products may be against viral infections and the metabolic syndrome due to oxidative stress. Although no adverse events are suspected, a safety profile should be established regarding the elderberry fruit active principle, especially for long-term use of high doses. Until this has been further investigated, consumers should avoid excess doses of such polyphenols in food supplements. In order to promote health as functional elderberry fruit products, they must have a high quantity of active principle in terms of anthocyanins, and contact with oxygen, light, and high temperature should be avoided. For juices, combibox cartons to be tapped at the bottom are recommended which ensure juice to be taken from the box so that no air can contact the juice. Adding vitamin C to the juice may be an advantage since ascorbic acid prevents degradation of the active principle. Taking all this into consideration, elderberry fruit products are promising treatment options and may help to maintain health. In order to get a health claim approval by regulatory authorities, high quality products must be developed and clinical studies must prove the efficacy for each indication beyond any doubt.
Chrubasik, S. (2015). A REVIEW OF PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECTS AND CLINICAL EFFICACY OF FRUIT PRODUCTS AND FUNCTIONAL FOODS FROM ELDERBERRY (SAMBUCUS SPP.) AS COMPARED WITH CHOKEBERRY (ARONIA MELANOCARPA) . Acta Hortic. 1061, 89-92
DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2015.1061.8
https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2015.1061.8
food supplements, black berries, antioxidative, influenza, metabolic syndrome
English

Acta Horticulturae