EVALUATION OF PROTEIN BAIT LACED WITH VARIOUS INSECTICIDES ON THE QUEENSLAND FRUIT FLY (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE): ATTRACTION, FEEDING, MORTALITY AND BAIT PERSISTENCE
The use of malathion in fruit fly protein bait sprays has raised serious concerns due to its adverse effects on non-target organisms. This has necessitated the evaluation of novel reduced-risk compounds. This study evaluated the effects of spinosad, fipronil, malathion and chlorpyrifos mixed with fruit fly protein bait (Mauri Pinnacle protein®) on attraction, feeding and mortality of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt). The effects of outdoor weathering of these mixtures on fly mortality were also determined. In field-cage experiment, protein-starved flies showed the same level of attraction to baits containing spinosad, fipronil, malathion, chlorpyrifos and protein alone used as control. Female protein-starved flies were deterred from feeding on baits containing malathion and chlorpyrifos compared to baits containing spinosad, fipronil and protein alone. Baits containing malathion and chlorpyrifos caused higher fly mortality and rapid fly knock down than spinosad and fipronil. However, spinosad acted slowly and caused an increase in fly mortality over time, causing up to 90% fly mortality after 72-h. Baits containing malathion and chlorpyrifos, applied on citrus leaves and weathered outdoors, had longer residual effectiveness in killing flies than spinosad and fipronil. Residual effectiveness of the spinosad bait mixture waned significantly after 3 days of outdoor weathering. Results suggest that spinosad and fipronil can be potential alternatives for malathion in protein bait sprays.
Kiran Mahat, and Richard A.I. Drew, (2015). EVALUATION OF PROTEIN BAIT LACED WITH VARIOUS INSECTICIDES ON THE QUEENSLAND FRUIT FLY (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE): ATTRACTION, FEEDING, MORTALITY AND BAIT PERSISTENCE. Acta Hortic. 1065, 1041-1048
Bactrocera tryoni, protein bait sprays, malathion