STATUS OF CITRUS IPM IN THE SOUTHERN MEDITERRANEAN BASIN MOROCCO, NORTH AFRICA
More than 30 phytophagous arthropods and snail species have been reported on citrus orchards in Morocco. Hemiptera represents the largest group of pest species, which include armored scales, soft scales, whiteflies, aphids, mealybugs and leafhoppers. The remaining pest species are represented by Dipteran, Lepidoptera and mite species. The key pests around which control strategies pivot are Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae), California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii Maskell (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), citrus red mite, Panonychus citri McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae), and the citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracilariidae). The outbreak of some secondary pests during last years could be interpreted as effects of some pesticides used against these key pests on the natural enemies. In addition, the recent invasion of a new mite species Eutetranychus orientalis Klein (Acari: Tetranychidae), recorded for the first time in 2008, has become a major concern because of rapid spread and huge numbers of generations that often necessitate frequent sprays. The most effective products used are mineral oils and sulphur. Pest management in Moroccan orchards relies primarily on chemical control. However, the implementation of Integrated Pest Management is slowly taking place. Some alternative methods have been developed already by means of research, in order to meet the new requirements of the market regarding fruit quality, environment and health. In this sense, biological control is in progress and alternative methods to chemical control such SIT against Mediterranean fruit fly are underway.
Ahmed Mazih, (2015). STATUS OF CITRUS IPM IN THE SOUTHERN MEDITERRANEAN BASIN MOROCCO, NORTH AFRICA. Acta Hortic. 1065, 1097-1103
pests, control methods, scales, mites, Medfly