CITRUS MEALYBUG, BIOLOGICAL CONTROL STRATEGIES AND LARGE SCALE IMPLEMENTATION ON CITRUS IN TURKEY
Citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is one of the main citrus pests in Turkey. Since 1970, its biological control implementation continue by means of releases of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Leptomastix dactylopii Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Releases of C. montrouzieri and L. dactylopii vary from 10 to 20 individuals per tree according to mealybug density level and citrus variety. The main strategy is based on releases of C. montrouzieri and L. dactylopii at an early stage of mealybug population. L. dactylopii can be released without egg masses of mealybug whereas C. montrouzieri should be released once egg masses are present. When both adults and egg masses of mealybug are present at the same time, both beneficials should be released together. Early releases can be impeded when other main pests, such as California Red Scale and Rust mite are present and pesticides are applied at the beginning of season. In this case, the use of harmless pesticides for these natural enemies is recommended to carry out biological control. In the Turkey coming future, the usage of biological control will be increase for two reason; firstly food safety has been important for society especially because of pesticide residues and secondly Turkish Ministry of Agriculture is giving subsidy to the farmers who are using biological control to enhance these practices.
Lerzan B. Erkilic, , Halil Demirbas, and Bülent Güven, (2015). CITRUS MEALYBUG, BIOLOGICAL CONTROL STRATEGIES AND LARGE SCALE IMPLEMENTATION ON CITRUS IN TURKEY. Acta Hortic. 1065, 1157-1163
Planococcus citri, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri, Leptomastix dactylopii