KIWIFRUIT RESEARCH AND PRODUCTION IN TURKEY

A. Atak
Total world kiwifruit production outside China is currently 1,412,455 t, the total planted area is 98,656 ha, and the production area is increasing each year (FAO, 2012). Cultivation of kiwifruit started in Europe in the 1960s. Towards the end of last century, kiwifruit were introduced to Turkey by the Atatürk Central Horticultural Research Institute in Yalova. Since then, each year has seen increasing interest. Today, Turkey, in terms of kiwifruit plantings, is amongst the more important producers. But productivity is low as most orchards in Turkey are still young; total yields will increase rapidly in the next few years.
Commercial orchards are generally A. deliciosa ‘Hayward’ and cultivation of other species or cultivars is very limited. Especially in the northern part of Turkey, climatic conditions are suitable for kiwifruit. The two most common support systems are the T-bar and the pergola and these are used, with some modifications. Psa (Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae) is so far not a serious problem in Turkey but root rots and water-logging problems in heavy soils are very common, so ridge planting is widely used. Frost protection in the form of fogging is also beginning to be used at higher altitudes. In contrast to New Zealand, irrigation of kiwifruit in Turkey is essential and is commonly done by mini-sprinkler systems in the Marmara and the Central Black Sea Regions. In the past, there was little irrigation of orchards in the Eastern Black Sea Region, but more recently irrigation systems have been installed.
Consumption of fresh kiwifruit is likely to increase as the Turkish kiwifruit industry develops. Kiwifruit producers in Turkey are organized into small producer associations. However, these have not yet combined to form a national association. Such a combined national organization would make it much easier to solve problems of production, storage, packaging and marketing of Turkish kiwifruit.
Kiwifruit research in Turkey first began in the 1990s at the Yalova Atatürk Horticultural Central Research Institute. The number of kiwifruit-related research programmes is increasing each year. The studies so far have concentrated on rooting of cuttings, climate change-adaptation, packaging, cold storage and fruit quality issues.
Atak, A. 2015. KIWIFRUIT RESEARCH AND PRODUCTION IN TURKEY. Acta Hort. (ISHS) 1096:63-67
https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2015.1096.3
'Hayward', cultivation, growing techniques, industry
English

Acta Horticulturae