In situ conservation of fruit crops in the territory of the Czech Republic
The area of the Czech Republic is a centre of cultivation of many fruit crops. Displacing traditional landraces in modern agricultural systems and continuing destruction of old alleys and plantations contributed to a considerable loss of genetic diversity in the Czech Republic. Moreover, changes in property ownership (nationalization, large scale re-allotment of land) during collectivisation in the 1950s also negatively affected the biodiversity of the Czech cultural landscape. Because of the possible extinction of these indigenous genotypes, the program for collecting and long term conservation of fruit landraces was started. This paper deals with conservation that employs in situ techniques. In situ conservation is considered a conservation of wild species in the natural habitat (locality). The authors extend the term for cultivated fruit species naturalized in the landscape. Regions and environments not affected by the commercial farming and recreation expansion, as are national parks, protected landscape areas, former army areas in border mountain ranges, were selected for in situ search. Important fruit accessions were localized by Global Positioning System and in situ registered. Grafts were taken from important genotypes and these accessions were transferred to germplasm collections of Research and Breeding Institute of Pomology, Holovousy Ltd. (RBIP). The genetic diversity of Czech fruit genetic resources has been investigated using phenotypical characterization. This phenotypical characterization revealed high diversity of analysed germplasm. Genotypes varied in tree size, productivity, ripening time, fruit size, fruit quality and disease resistance. The most important landraces and older cultivars are described in the presented paper.
Paprstein, F., Sedlak, J. and Holubec, V. (2015). In situ conservation of fruit crops in the territory of the Czech Republic. Acta Hortic. 1101, 81-84
locality, diversity, GPS, cultivars, landrace