Improvement of green skin Indonesian mango 'Arumanis 143' by crossing with yellow skin cultivars
Although Indonesia is the fifth largest mango producer in the world, producing more than 2 million t per year, less than 0.1% of that amount is exported. This is due to the unappealing color of Indonesia mango skin. 'Arumanis 143', the best mango in Indonesia, has green skin predominantly and a dark brown base even in the ripe state. In 2006, Brawijaya University initiated the Mango Hybrid Program at Cukurgondang Mango Collection Garden, East Java, the objective of which was to improve skin color by crossing with 'Podang Urang' (local), 'Swarnarika' (Bangladesh), 'Carabao' (the Philippines), and 'Haden' (Florida). In 2008, their offspring seedlings were transplanted to a plantation at the Center of Horticultural Seed Institute, Pohjentrek, Pasuruan, East Java. In 2012, juvenile progenies (five years old) were induced to flower by treatment with paclobutrazol and ethepon, and flowers bloomed in June 2012. Harvesting was conducted gradually between September and October 2012, with consideration of ripeness. There were 75 progenies flowering and 46 fruiting out of 110 progenies. Two progenies, AS2 and PA4.1 were selected as novel hybrids on the basis of fruit characteristics, particularly fruit skin color, fruit weight, fruit number per tree and pulp taste. AS2 fruit weighs 430-675 g and has yellowish green skin, a fresh sweet taste, and, low fiber content. On the other hand, PA4.1 fruit weighs 400-500 g and has yellow skin, a moderate sweet taste, and low fiber content. PA4.1 is a promising cultivar for export whereas AS2 is promising for the domestic market. These results indicated that fruit skin color and fruit size were inherited dominantly by female parent.
Wardiyati, T., Roviq, M. and Ashari, S. (2016). Improvement of green skin Indonesian mango 'Arumanis 143' by crossing with yellow skin cultivars. Acta Hortic. 1111, 303-308
mango, Mangifera indica, 'Arumanis 143', breeding, new cultivars