Effects of using raw and composted manures on nitrous oxide emissions: a review
A literature review showed that, in most cases, the use of manure products increases nitrous oxide emissions. However, nitrous oxide emission rates vary depending on animal species and type of manure (liquid, solid, composted) as nitrogen (total, available) and carbon (total, labile) characteristics vary. Use of composted manures reduces greenhouse gas emissions compared to raw and liquid manures since nutrient and labile carbon availability and release dynamics are quite different in raw and composted products. Emission factors associated with the use of manure products can range widely. Rather than adopting an average emission factor for manure products that straddles a wide range of values, it is suggested that differentiated emissions factors for different types of manures (liquid, solid, digested, composted) should be established, or that available nitrogen levels, possibly in combination with labile carbon content, should be used for determining emission factors for manure products, rather than total nitrogen content.
Biala, J., Rowlings, D.W., De Rosa, D. and Grace, P. (2016). Effects of using raw and composted manures on nitrous oxide emissions: a review. Acta Hortic. 1112, 425-430
emission factor, greenhouse gas, compost, manure