Strategies for conservation of endangered wild grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. subsp. sylvestris (C.C. Gmel.) Hegi)
The cultivated grape is believed to have been domesticated around 4,000-8,000 B.C. from the perennial wild grape Vitis vinifera L. subsp. sylvestris (Gmelin) Hegi in a region between the Black and Caspian Seas. Being the progenitor of cultivated grapevines, it is an important genepool for viticulture. Unfortunately it is an endangered taxon, mainly as a consequence of destruction of its habitat. Therefore its conservation is a priority for a sustainable viticultural industry. To conserve the diversity of this genepool from Sicily, we have sampled plants from different habitats and long-term embryogenic cultures have been established. Two floral organs NDASH pistils and anthers isolated from immature flowers NDASH were used as the source of explants for somatic embryo induction. Somatic embryos were induced within four months of culture directly from explant tissues or from callus. A strong effect of medium composition was observed on embryogenic potential. The frequency of somatic embryogenesis was also influenced by genotype and explant type. The highest frequency (up to 12%) of somatic embryogenesis was observed when pistils were cultured in the presence of 5 μM β-naphthoxyacetic acid and 4.4 μM N6-benzylaminopurine. Subculture of somatic embryos onto plant growth regulator-free medium resulted in their conversion into plants. Axillary buds derived from plantlets that had originated from somatic embryos were amenable to cryopreservation by droplet vitrification with 39-44% plant regeneration.
Carimi, F., Carra, A., Panis, B. and Pathirana, R. (2016). Strategies for conservation of endangered wild grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. subsp. sylvestris (C.C. Gmel.) Hegi). Acta Hortic. 1115, 81-86
cryopreservation, droplet vitrification, germplasm, in vitro culture, somatic embryogenesis