Evaluating operating characteristics of light sources for horticultural applications
In this paper we report on several operating characteristics for a select group of light sources used for horticultural applications. These characteristics include: photon flux (including photosynthetically active radiation or PAR), power consumption, efficiency, and light distribution. We evaluated two (power adjustable) high-pressure sodium lamps (HPS: mogul base and double-ended lamps), three light emitting diode (LED) lamps (two arrays and one standard bulb), a compact fluorescent lamp, and an incandescent lamp. The tested high-pressure sodium lamps recorded the highest PAR efficiency (1.6 µmol J-1) when operated at their highest power consumption settings. But these lamps also exhibited the most rapid decline in intensity during our light distribution tests.
Wallace, C. and Both, A.J. (2016). Evaluating operating characteristics of light sources for horticultural applications. Acta Hortic. 1134, 435-444
CFL, efficacy, efficiency, HPS, INC, integrating sphere, LED, spectroradiometer