Integrated approach for control of pests and diseases in apple orchards in the region of Central-South Bulgaria
Codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) as a key pest in Bulgaria has been controlled by routine applications of a broad spectrum of insecticides, such as organophosphates and pyretroids, to maintain this pest at an economically acceptable level. Disadvantages of such practices include strong negative effects on beneficial species and eventually development of resistance to the insecticides used. Control by conventional methods, despite the numerous treatments, is often ineffective. During 2012 and 2013 the incidence of codling moth was monitored in two commercial apple orchards situated in Plovdiv (12.4 ha with conventional spraying program) and Stara Zagora (22 ha of integrated approach), both regions located in Central-South Bulgaria. For control of pests and diseases, 19 and 20 pesticide treatments were applied in 2012 and 2013, respectively, in the apple orchard in Plovdiv region and 12 and 13 treatments in Stara Zagora region, where granulovirus 'Madex' against codling moth was used. 'Madex' was applied two times against the first and the second generations. At harvest time the fruit damage in the conventional orchard was more than 5% and in the integrated orchard almost 0%.
Dimova, M., Palagacheva, N. and Dzhuvinov, V. (2016). Integrated approach for control of pests and diseases in apple orchards in the region of Central-South Bulgaria. Acta Hortic. 1139, 721-726
codling moth, scab, conventional and integrated production, granulovirus 'Madex'