Modern apple fruit production
Due to loss of markets in North Africa and Russia, Europe has had a surplus of apples in the past few years. The pressure intensifies and the producers strive to optimize their yields ha-1 and ensure topmost quality of apple fruit. Economically successful and environmentally conscious apple production must consider several parameters. Effective production is based on optimal environmental conditions and soil, which can be ameliorated with appropriate technological measures. Physiological demands and potentials of specific soil-cultivar-rootstock combinations must be understood to optimize orchard planning, control vigor and achieve abundant and regular flowering. Planting system and training form must lead to ideal canopy light relation and energy capture. In order to achieve optimal and high-standard yields, producers must strive to reach full bearing potential of the trees as early as in the third or fourth year after planting. Moreover, training system and fruit thinning practices must be optimized to harvest large yields and high quality fruit each season.
Stampar, F. and Jakopič, J. (2016). Modern apple fruit production. Acta Hortic. 1139, 419-424
Malus domestica Borkh., vegetative growth, fruit set, quality