J.L. Kudasov
Modern high-density orchards are the plantations where the growth and development of trees are submitted to regularities of agrophytocoenosis. It is known that the change of biology of plants in phytocoenosis provides better utilization of the material and energy resources of environments and increases the stability of the individual, as well as of the community in face of unfavourable climatic factors. The latter are particularly important for Kazakhstan's horticulture because the continental conditions are unfavourable for such mesophytic plants as apple. Besides matching the ecological conditions the orchard must respond to the demands of intensive fruit production; that is early commercial bearing, quick returns and ease of mechanization of the main production processes involved in caring for the trees and in harvesting.

In experiments at the Kazakh Research Institute of Horticulture and Viticulture, 2-year-old trees of early-bearing apple cultivars on the dwarfing rootstock M.9 with a plant density of 8–9 000 trees per hectare produced a commercial crop of 8–10 t/ha in 2–4 years after planting either one-year-old trees or rootstocks which were then budded in situ.

The crops increased quickly and achieved 70 t/ha in the fourth year of bearing. In the treatments in which plant density was 4–4 500 trees per hectare the first yield was only half of that at 8–9 000 trees/ha, but they still achieved 40 t/ha in the fourth year of bearing.

The standard dwarf orchard in Kazakhstan is planted at 5 x 2 m. This gives its first commercial yield, of 4 t/ha, only in the seventh year after planting the rootstocks in the orchard. In the fourth year of bearing its yield is only 9.50 t/ha.

In the high-density variants the form of the tree crown was limited by cutting off one-year-old trees to a height of 90–100 cm and removing feathers to 20–25 cm. Thus the depth of the crown was approximately 65–75 cm. This tree-forming provided weak lateral branches growing from the central axis of the trees. Fruit-bud formation occurred on these laterals in the first year of growth. The habit of this fruit wall was maintained by contour summer pruning in later years. The better period for pruning is the end of

Kudasov, J.L. (1981). HIGH-DENSITY ORCHARDS IN KAZAKHSTAN. Acta Hortic. 114, 346-347
DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.1981.114.49

Acta Horticulturae