ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF HIGH DENSITY PLANTINGS IN APPLE-GROWING IN THE NETHERLANDS
The development of planting density of apple orchards is shown and the economics of different densities are compared with respect to the production level, the labour requirements and the costs of establishment. Several parameters for judging the economic position are discussed such as the pay-back periods, the internal rate of return and the present value of the cash flows.
The impact of the planting system (single-, double- or multi-row system) in terms of costs, production level and mechanisation possibilities on the economics of apple production is discussed. An indication of the influence on the economic results of variations in growers price is given.