Genotyping grapevine with chloroplast markers and limits of the method
Using chloroplast markers ccmp 2, 3, 4 and 10 as well as ccSSR 4, 5, 6, 9, 12, 13, 15, 17 and 19 about 200 accessions were analysed. Due to the occurrence of seventeen different chlorotypes we were able to characterize several grapevines. According to their maternal inheritance chloroplast markers are useful to proof part of the parentage. We were able to verify the kinship of cultivars like 'Zweigelt', 'Blauburger' and 'Roesler' derived from younger crossings. Ancient parentages could not fulfil the demands of a perfect heritage of markers as observed for the cultivar 'Sylvaner'. Finally, this cross was confirmed by more than 40 SSR markers. Nevertheless, the polymorphism is also very weak between some European cultivars and genetic far distant rootstocks based on American Vitis species. For instance 'Pinot noir' and 'Kober 5BB' deliver the same profile with chloroplast markers despite numerous different chlorotypes within Vitis vinifera. When we analysed several accessions of different old cultivars we could detect within 'Traminer', 'Sylvaner' and 'Pinot gris' samples some variability of chloroplast markers. In the case of 'Traminer' we verified the differences by cloning and sequencing the fragments. Despite high stability of the chloroplast genome mutations can never be excluded. On the other hand it can be supposed that cultivars with more than one chlorotype were propagated very frequently in the past and were spread more than others. Hence, differences of chlorotypes in grapevine derived more from intensive vegetative propagation than from natural evolution.
Regner, F. and Hanck, R. (2017). Genotyping grapevine with chloroplast markers and limits of the method. Acta Hortic. 1157, 143-150
Vitis vinifera, chlorotype, genome, genetic profile, polymorphism, microsatellite