Chrysanthemum: rich diversity of flower color and full possibilities for flower color modification
The diversity of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum × morifolium) germplasm resources is unique in global horticultural history for the beauty and rich variations of its flower color. Due to the lack of blue and bright red colors, modification of chrysanthemum color has become a hot topic in the study of flower color. Recent advanced studies on flower color of chrysanthemum germplasm and the worldwide possibilities for improvement of its flower coloration are reviewed. Literature analysis showed that intuitional description of chrysanthemum color in the abundant archaic Chinese literature provided clues about the evolution of chrysanthemum color. Moreover, an integrative research system for chrysanthemum color has been successfully constructed, including phenotypic analysis, phytochemicals, plant physiology and genetics progressing. The modification of chrysanthemum color is also developing rapidly. The present understanding of the mechanism of flower coloration provides significant references for future studies on flower color modification in chrysanthemums.
Dai, S.L. and Hong, Y. (2017). Chrysanthemum: rich diversity of flower color and full possibilities for flower color modification. Acta Hortic. 1171, 193-208
Chrysanthemum × morifolium, flower color phenotype, pigment, genetic regulation mechanism, genetic engineering