Breeding for type 1 red-fleshed apple varieties: using the red-fleshed apple variety as female parent yields a higher percentage of red-leafed seedlings
In 1999, a breeding program for red-fleshed apple cultivars was established at the Bavarian Centre of Pomology and Fruit Breeding, Hallbergmoos, Germany. It aims to combine the red flesh trait with high fruit quality, tolerance to important apple diseases, and high agronomic value. In type 1 red-fleshed apple cultivars, the red leaf color can be used as a marker for early selection of the red flesh trait. For that purpose, it is important to know whether the choice of the red-leafed parent as male or female parent influences the ratio of red-leafed seedlings. Apple seedlings originating from more than 40 cross combinations made between 2000 and 2014 were investigated, which showed that the percentage of red-leafed seedlings was higher if the red-fleshed apple variety was used as the female parent compared with its use as the male parent. When crossing a white- and a red-fleshed apple variety, the white-fleshed genotype should preferably be used as the pollen parent to increase the breeding efficiency of red-leafed seedlings.
Neumüller, M. and Dittrich, F. (2017). Breeding for type 1 red-fleshed apple varieties: using the red-fleshed apple variety as female parent yields a higher percentage of red-leafed seedlings. Acta Hortic. 1172, 241-244
fruit breeding, Malus domestica