Morphological and molecular characterization of the various species of Procontarinia (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) attacking mango in the Philippines
The mango gall midge belonging to the genus Procontarinia is an emerging pest of mango in the Philippines. This study presents new information about the various species of Procontarinia and how to differentiate them from each other morphologically and genetically. Light microscopy and DNA barcoding techniques were used to identify the two species of Procontarinia observed: Procontarinia frugivora and Procontarinia postulata. Variations in larval, pupal and adult stages were noted and described. DNA barcoding using the mtCOI gene was able to delinieate P. frugivora and P. pustulata. Pairwise distances suggested little or no transition/transversion mutation within the two species. Further analysis showed that they have equal evolutionary rates using Tajima's Relative Rate Test and that they are 82.8% homologous. Construction of a maximum-likelihood tree showed separate clustering of the two species. The two species have distinct feeding niches. P. frugivora feeds exclusively on mango fruits while P. pustulata feeds on mango shoots.
Medina, C.D.R., Ronquillo, S.J.Q., Mendioro, M.S., Kolesik, P. and Newton, I. (2017). Morphological and molecular characterization of the various species of Procontarinia (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) attacking mango in the Philippines. Acta Hortic. 1183, 287-290
morphology, DNA barcoding, mtCOI, mango gall midge