Yield, harvesting efficiency and oil chemical quality of cultivars 'Arbequina' and 'Arbosana' harvested by straddle machine in two Apulian growing areas
Super-high-density olive culture is characterized by hedgerow trees with planting density ranging from 1200 up to 2000 trees ha-1, in order to allow continuous harvesting by straddle machines. The genotype cultivated is the key factor for both the agronomic and economic sustainability of this new cropping system. 'Arbequina' and 'Arbosana', together with a few others, are the most-used cultivars up to now. Yield, harvesting efficiency and oil quality are strongly affected by agronomical and environmental factors, among others. We report yields, harvesting efficiencies and chemical characteristics of oils of the cultivars 'Arbequina' and 'Arbosana' grown in two different pedoclimatic Apulian areas (southern Italy), with the same planting density, tree age, cropping practices and harvesting machine. Each cultivar was harvested at the same ripening stage for both sites. Site 1 was warmer and more arid than site 2. Mean harvesting efficiency was 98%; 'Arbequina' had higher harvesting efficiency with respect to 'Arbosana', due to different detachment force. The colder site reduced fruit yield and yield efficiencies of both cultivars but increased yield quality, by increasing both unsaturation level of fatty acids and polyphenol content of the extracted oil. The selection of appropriate growing areas was an important tool to define levels of both fruit yield and oil quality for the high-density olive orchards. Moreover, cultivar and harvesting time influenced not only the above-mentioned yield parameters, but also the performance of the straddle harvesters both in terms of harvesting efficiency and canopy damage.
Camposeo, S. and Vivaldi, G.A. (2018). Yield, harvesting efficiency and oil chemical quality of cultivars 'Arbequina' and 'Arbosana' harvested by straddle machine in two Apulian growing areas. Acta Hortic. 1199, 397-402
super-high-density, climate, ripening indices, harvesting time, fatty acid composition, polyphenols