Effects of genotype and environment on in vitro seed germination and plantlet development of Capsicum spp.

G.P.S.S. Vasconcelos, E.R. do Rêgo, M.S. Cruz, M.M. do Rêgo, E.U. Alves, R.A. Bruno
Peppers belong to the Capsicum genus and the Solanaceae family. Peppers have been considered an important product for the Brazilian agribusiness, with a consumption per capita of 80 g year-1. Capsicum are adapted to high temperatures but not to water/osmotic stress, which restricts seed germination and plantlet development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the germination and plantlet development of different genotypes of Capsicum spp. submitted to in vitro water/osmotic stress. Eight genotypes were used: four accessions (01, 72, 128, and 137) and four hybrids (72×128, 137×128, 01×128, and 137×390). The genotypes were subjected to five culture media prepared with different concentrations of agar: M1 (0.8%), M2 (1%), M3 (1.2%), M4 (1.4%), and M5 (1.6%). The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design in a factorial arrangement (8 genotypes × 5 agar concentrations), with ten replicates per treatment. The evaluated variables were: germination percentage (%), germination speed index (GSI), hypocotyl length, plantlet height, number of leaves, and radicle length. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and the means were grouped by Scott-Knott's criteria. There was no genotype × environmental interaction effect on the analyzed variables. The agar concentrations did not affect the evaluated traits. Based on these results it can be stated that the Capsicum genotypes used in this study were not sensitive to the applied water/osmotic stress. There were significant effects for genotypes to GSI, germination percentage, and number of leaves (p<0.01). The hybrids 137×390 and 01×128 presented the highest values for GSI and germination percentage. The genotypes 01×128 and 137×128 produced the highest number of leaves. All these hybrids showed high parent heterosis that can be explored in breeding programs and seed markets.
Vasconcelos, G.P.S.S., do Rêgo, E.R., Cruz, M.S., do Rêgo, M.M., Alves, E.U. and Bruno, R.A. (2018). Effects of genotype and environment on in vitro seed germination and plantlet development of Capsicum spp.. Acta Hortic. 1204, 243-248
DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2018.1204.32
abiotic stress, chilli peppers, water deficit, genetic variability

Acta Horticulturae