A historical review of olive germplasm evaluation and cultivar development in Crimea

S. Tsiupka
The Crimea is located at the northern border of olive growing. Under subtropical Crimean climate conditions this crop can survive without suffering frost damage. This area is rich in olive genetic resources with very different characteristics such as time of bloom, early and late ripening and variable fruit quality. Here, there are many cultivars with various morphological characters, good potential for productivity, oil quality and table olive characters. The research was conducted from 2010 to 2015 on the olive plantation belonging to Nikita Botanical Garden, located near Yalta (44˚30.83'N 34˚14.16'E). The aim of this work was to study the gene pool of olive cultivars and forms developed and introduced by Nikita Botanical Garden. On the basis of years of research and in particular of the intervarietal hybridization of introduced cultivars our collection was substantially enriched with new domestic cultivars. The research subjects were the predefined biometrical and pomological characteristics of three local olive cultivars: 'Manita', 'Nikolina', 'Nikitskaya Krupnoplodnaya'. The cultivar 'Ascolano' has been used as the reference. We assessed the following properties of these genotypes: flowering phenophase (the onset, full flowering and the end); harvest maturity; pomological properties (fruit width (mm), fruit length (mm), fruit shape index (length/width), fruit shape, 100 fruits weight (g), seed width (mm), seed length (mm), seed shape index (length/width), seed shape, 100 seeds weight (g)); disease susceptibility in accordance with standard morphometric and chemical methodologies. The major characteristics of the cultivars are presented using the UPOV descriptor. The highest tolerance against frost was shown by 'Nikitskaya Krupnoplodnaya'. 'Nikitskaya Krupnoplodnaya' and the reference cultivar 'Ascolano' had the fruit with the highest weight. The lowest weight was recorded at 'Nikolina'. Some of selected olive cultivars can be used for commercial growing and in breeding programs.
Tsiupka, S. (2018). A historical review of olive germplasm evaluation and cultivar development in Crimea. Acta Hortic. 1208, 97-104
DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2018.1208.13
gene pool, breeding, new cultivar, fruit quality, hybrids, olive

Acta Horticulturae