Specific features of the inheritance of some traits in apricot
In the southern regions of Russia apricot plants can often be damaged by spring frosts. The aim of our investigations was to determine the regularity in the inheritance of some valuable traits in apricot for further use in breeding works. Flowering terms, reactions to the low air temperatures and the fruit quality in the progeny of 18 breeding combinations were studied. Most of the late flowering hybrids (66.7-97.7%) were selected from the combinations 'Naryadnyj' × 'Olimp', 'Shalard 5' × 'Forum' and 'Shalard 4' × 'Kostyor'. Among them 9.5-32.6% of transgressive genotypes were noted. The crossings 'Naryadnyj' × 'Kostinskij', 'Naryadnyj' × 'Olimp' and 'Aviator' × 'Kostinskij' resulted in more hybrids (34.9-40.5%) resistant to the low temperatures compared to the others. The crossing of large-fruited genotypes resulted in the intermediate-type divergence of their progeny. In these combinations we selected 12.5-30.0% of the large-fruited hybrids and 40.0-75.0% of the hybrids with medium fruit size. When the cultivars with the medium fruit size were involved in hybridization the number of large-fruited seedlings reduced to 10.0-16.7%, and the number of small-fruited ones increased to 20.8-50.0%. The four combinations that produced seedlings (40.0-66.7%) with high taste quality of fruits were selected. Large, bright fruits with a monochromatic orange color or yellow with a blush up to 50-70% of the fruit surface are in high demand. It was revealed that there were five combinations that produced the highest number (36.3-45.5%) of genotypes with orange colored skin. It was determined that the inheritance of the fruit skin ground color, in most of the apricot hybrids, follows a simple scheme (1:1 or 3:1). The yellow coloration is dominant compared to the orange coloration. Thus in the cultivars 'Kostyor' and 'Olimp' the trait of orange skin color is in a homozygous state that makes it possible to obtain offspring with bright orange fruits. It was found that the circular fruit shape and sweet taste of the seeds predominated.
Gorina, V. and Richter, A. (2018). Specific features of the inheritance of some traits in apricot. Acta Hortic. 1208, 183-190
Prunus armeniaca L., inheritance, flowering, winter hardiness, fruit quality