Kiwifruit status in Iran: management and production
Here we report some information about the kiwifruit industry in Iran since the introduction of the species in the 1970s. Kiwifruit acreage and yield have greatly increased in the past 25 years, from 100 ha and 200 t in 1990 to 11,600 ha and over 300,000 t, with yields around 26-29 t ha‑1, in 2016. The main cultivars are Actinidia deliciosa Hayward (accounting for 100% of exports), and the yellow-fleshed Actinidia chinensis Hort. 16A, introduced in 2003. The Caspian Sea region of the northern provinces of Iran has appropriate environmental and climatic conditions for kiwifruit culture, especially Guilan, Mazandaran and Golestan provinces. These regions are characterized by optimal climatic conditions (rainy with high humidity) and by rich and fertile soils with pH 5.5-5.6 suitable for kiwifruit cultivation. Orchards are mainly trained to the T-bar system, and the planting density is about 500 vines ha‑1; pollination is done with bees (8 hives ha‑1), and the male:female vine ratio is 1:8, considered a proper distribution for Iranian conditions. As far as pests and diseases are concerned, nematodes and fungi [such as Phytophthora spp. (gummosis, root-rot)] in addition to pests [mainly Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (crab louse)], are the most frequent. Both biological control (Prospaltella perniciosi) and/or chemical treatments (Diazinon) are performed. Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) is not a major problem for kiwifruit cultivation in Iran, although the disease has been reported by some growers.
Maleki, S., Maleki-Zanjani, B. and Gallego, P.P. (2018). Kiwifruit status in Iran: management and production. Acta Hortic. 1218, 39-44
Actinidia deliciosa, conventional, organic and integrated agricultural practices, plant nutrient uptake, plant nutritional status