Some chemical compositions and sensory properties of wheat bread fortified with fluted pumpkin leaf slurry
The need to improve the nutrient content of wheat breads using deposits of nutrients in fresh fluted pumpkin leaves while avoiding the loss in nutrient during drying of the leaves, form the basis of this work. Fresh leaves of fluted pumpkin were destalked, rinsed, sliced and blended with water to obtain the leaf slurry. The slurry was added to bread ingredients in the ratios 1, 3 and 5% (v/w) of the wheat flour to make the vegetable fortified bread. The physical properties of the fortified bread (loaf volume, loaf weight and specific volume), proximate composition, essential minerals; vitamin C content and sensory properties were evaluated using standard methods. Results showed percent increase in the following: bread loaf volume (0.04 to 1.24%), weight (3.11 to 8.79%), crude protein content (21.23 to 37.77%), ash content (50.00 to 75.86%) and fibre content (17.97 to 46.97%). The results of mineral contents showed that the percent increase in calcium content ranged from 14.29 to 74.32%, iron content ranged from 19.12 to 37.50%, sodium content ranged from 84.30 to 85.50% while magnesium content ranged from 14.29 to 74.32%. The percent increase in vitamin C content ranged from 21.76 to 76.78%. However, because of the green colour of the bread, the acceptability of the bread reduced as the level of leaf slurry inclusion increased.
Famuwagun, A.A., Odunlade, T.V., Taiwo, K.A., Gbadamosi, S.O., Oyedele, D.J. and Adebooye, O.C. (2019). Some chemical compositions and sensory properties of wheat bread fortified with fluted pumpkin leaf slurry. Acta Hortic. 1238, 117-128
fluted pumpkin slurry, wheat bread, vitamin C, mineral composition