Pineapple cultivation under agro-ecological management with biotechnology approaches
Intensive systems of production have been developed for pineapple, mostly based on systematic applications of pesticides to prevent any buildup of pathogen populations. A schedule of applications established from parasite monitoring results in a more reasonable use of pesticides. Intensive monocultural systems have lost ecosystemic services as regulatory functions provided by ecological agrosystems which allow natural balance between beneficial and pathogenic organisms. A strong societal demand to reduce environmental pollution and health risks has limited the availability of pesticides inputs. The challenge for the pineapple industries is to design new cropping systems respectful of the agroecology concept, which promotes an agriculture that protects man in a preserved environment. The most recent biotechnologies may help agronomists in elaborating new environmentally friendly practices, particularly for production of disease-free planting material and pest management. Production of disease-free material through micro-propagation techniques can be used to obtain pineapple vitroplants free of such viruses as the PMWaVs (Wilt) and then to mass produce planting material of selected cultivars. Using vitroplants in traditional field nurseries reduces the cost of the mass production of clean planting material. Weeds may be efficiently controlled by competition or allelopathic effects. Parasite and stress management can be accomplished using cover crops that are non-hosts for nematodes or symphylids or produce biopesticides that reduce inoculum levels. Non-specific systemic resistances induced in pineapple by endophytic bacteria or mycorrhizal fungi is a promising additional tool to control nematodes. Several biopesticides and biocontrol techniques (bacteria, fungi, essential oils) tested on pineapple may contribute to pest management. Nutrition management options include bacteria that may reduce the use of chemical fertilizers, fix nitrogen and solubilize potash and phosphorus. Some are also potential plant growth promoting organisms. Conclusion: biotechnology approaches (cover crops, biopesticides, micro-organisms for biocontrol) will help to establish more environmentally friendly agrosystems for pineapple.
Soler, A. (2019). Pineapple cultivation under agro-ecological management with biotechnology approaches. Acta Hortic. 1239, 65-76
pineapple cultural practices, cover crop, biopesticide, biocontrol, systemic resistances