The effects on growth, earliness and yield of transplant in comparison with direct-seeded in sweet corn (Zea mays L.)
Transplant tray cell size (volume) and age of containerized sweet corn (Zea mays L.) transplants were evaluated for effects on growth, earliness and yield in comparison with direct sowing during three years on six experiments. In the first year, three experiments were carried out: 1) transplant ages of 20 and 33 days and cell volumes of 20, 40, and 120 cm3 with a normal sugary (su) cultivar of the 760 Cumulative Corn Heat Unit (CHU, base 10°C); 2) transplant ages of 19 and 27 days and the same cell volume, but of the sugary enhanced (se) genotype variety (905 CHU); 3) transplant ages of 27, 32, and 39 days with cell volume of 30 cm3 alone and shrunken-2 (sh-2) hybrid (955 CHU). In the second year: 4) transplant ages of 20 and 35 days using the same containers and genotype as experiment 1; 5) transplant ages 20 and 35 days and same cell volume as experiment 2 and utilizing sh-2 hybrid (870 CHU); 6) transplant ages 17, 25, and 33 days using the same containers and genotype as experiment 3. In all experiments the direct sowing was performed with a final separation of 0.25 m between plants in the row. The plant growth (height, leaf area and ear sweet corn size) reduced with the increase of age and/or decrease of the size of the cell, mainly in cultivars with early flowering (<CHU). In all experiments, in general the transplant treatments were more precocious and of lower yield than those of direct seeding establishment. When the thermal time accumulated by plants in the trays was higher ( >100 CHU), the yield decreased by 3.91% (R2=0.79) for each unit of CHU. This would indicate that, for the establishment of sweet corn crop through transplantation, the use of late cultivars or early cultivars with higher volume of cell trays result in lower yield.
Bouzo, C.A. and Favaro, J.C. (2019). The effects on growth, earliness and yield of transplant in comparison with direct-seeded in sweet corn (Zea mays L.). Acta Hortic. 1249, 141-146
agronomic performance, seedling transplant, tray cell volume, age transplant, establishment methods