Integrated management of papaya pests in Veracruz: Papaya ringspot virus, papaya mealybug and mites
Papaya research at the Colegio de Postgraduados, Campus Veracruz, has focused on the development of integrated pest management tools for Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-p), papaya mealybug and mites. The Integrated Management of Papaya concept was developed during the 1990s, when PRSV-p became the first limiting factor of the crop. Several studies were performed by the Interdisciplinary Papaya Research Group in the central coastal area of Veracruz State and also in Michoacan State, tuning the management of the viral disease. We determined the positive input of seedling protection to aphid vectors, increasing planting densities, roughing of plants with initial viral symptoms, and intercropping with maize during the first 6 months. We also tested and eliminated several unsuccessful ideas, such as spraying insecticides and oils to prevent viral transmission, the use of reflecting materials and neem aqueous solutions as aphid repellents. We investigated why papaya mealybug was not a pest in Mexico, but was elsewhere. The regulation of this species with various native parasitoids, and the importance of preserving them, were demonstrated. Our collaboration with the US Department of Agriculture on the collection of effective parasitoids resulted in the control of this pest in several countries around the world, including the USA (Florida, Puerto Rico and Hawaii). Papaya mites were studied, providing correct and long-needed identification, as well as the role of native and imported predatory mites; the viability of selective miticides and sampling procedures were studied. Papaya has become a high-cost crop. However, a large group of growers changing from peasant to business agriculture are in need of specific technology transference models to move forward. We have used social network analysis to study a participatory model called Simultaneous Productive Growth Groups, where pest management is our reason to initiate the interaction with those groups.
Villanueva-Jiménez, J.A., Osorio-Acosta, F., Hernández-Castro, E., Téliz-Ortiz, D., Avila‑Reséndiz, C., Abato-Zárate, M., Reyes-Pérez, N., Mora-Aguilera, A., Cano-Reyes, O., Reta-Mendiola, J.L., Cabrera-Mireles, H. and González-Munguía, M.V. (2019). Integrated management of papaya pests in Veracruz: Papaya ringspot virus, papaya mealybug and mites. Acta Hortic. 1250, 63-68
Aphis nerii, Eotetranychus lewisi, Euseius hibisci, Eutetranychus banksi, Galendromus helveolus, Papaya ringspot virus, Paracoccus marginatus, Tetranychus merganser