Use and exploitation of Carica papaya 'Maradol' and by-products for food industry application
Papaya (Carica papaya) 'Maradol' is an exotic tropical fruit, highly appreciated for its characteristic flavor and health benefits. Papaya is mainly consumed as fresh and ripe fruit, though under-sized papaya and by-products are wasted or not exploited. The objective of this study was to offer alternative uses for exploitation of papaya fruit and by-products to be applied in the food industry. Under-sized papayas were processed using mechanical and liquid-nitrogen freezing and spray-drying technologies. Papaya fruit was pureed and then mixed with citric acid (0.1-0.2%, w/v) and maltodextrin (3‑5%) to obtain the feeding solution and then spray dried. Physicochemical, microbiological, and sensory analyses were carried out to evaluate samples. Electron micrographs were taken in order to evaluate spray-dried papaya powders. Papaya peel wastes (two stages of maturation) were used to obtain crude proteolytic enzyme extracts using water, phosphate buffer (pH 6), and citrate buffer (pH 5). Leaves and seeds of ripe and unripe papaya were used to extract aqueous polyphenolic metabolites. Changes in texture parameters after freezing treatments were observed among samples. Although changes in color and textural parameters were observed after 7 days of storage, inhibition of microbial growth was observed after 10 days of storage; this indicated the effectiveness of freezing technologies against microbial spoilage. Ascorbic acid in spray-dried papaya powders was not affected by temperature. Powders were reconstituted and sensorial attributes were comparable to unprocessed papaya. The highest yield for proteolytic enzyme extracts was obtained with citrate buffer in green peel. Crude extracts were also used in gelatin production. Total polyphenols and flavonoids were detected and measured only in the leaf extract and unripe seed extract, indicating that by-products of papaya are a good source of natural antioxidant compounds. All these results support the possible application of papaya fruit and by-products in the food industry.
Gastélum-Martínez, E., Ayora-Talavera, T.R., González-Flores, T., Sánchez-Contreras, A., Ocampo-Thomason, P. and Pacheco-López, N.A. (2019). Use and exploitation of Carica papaya 'Maradol' and by-products for food industry application. Acta Hortic. 1250, 209-218
freezing, spray-dried papaya powder, proteolytic extracts, aqueous polyphenols, papaya by-products