Autochthonous grape species, varieties and cultivars of Crimea
Studies conducted by many scientists indicate the origin of the cultural grapes Vitis vinifera ssp. sativa DC. from the forms of wild grapes Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris Gmel. (Hegi). Ours studies of 160 forms of autochthonous wild forest grapes of Crimea Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris Gmel. (Hegi) from various areas of Crimea on 30 features of an adult leaf has allowed to reveal the varieties previously described, and to allocate an additional variety of Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris var. meridiestaurica Vol. et Pol. The differentiation of 80 local cultivars of the Crimean grapes along a complex of 84 ampelographic signs indicates the belonging of the local Crimean cultivars of the Vitis vinifera ssp. sativa DC. to different eco-geographic groups of Eurasia. The obtained results confirm the hypothesis about the origin of cultivars of the Crimean grapes from various regions of the formation of cultural grapes. However, a comparison of the morphological features of some of the cultivated local cultivars of the Crimean grapes and the previously identified varieties of Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris Gmel. (Hegi) proves that a number of local cultivars were selected by man in antiquity in the Crimea from the natural forest fund and are truly autochthonous. Thus, the existence of relic endemic forms of autochthonous wild grapes at the present time in Crimea, the existence of transitional forms that are considered to be an intermediate link between wild grapes and cultivars, the availability of autochthonous cultivars that have originated from wild forest grapes, makes it possible to consider this region as an independent subcenter origin of the culture of grapes.
Volynkin, V., Polulyakh, A., Levchenko, S., Vasylyk, I. and Likhovskoi, V. (2019). Autochthonous grape species, varieties and cultivars of Crimea. Acta Hortic. 1259, 91-98
grapes, eco-geographical differentiation, autochthonous species, autochthonous varieties, autochthonous cultivars