Soil disinfestation applications in strawberry seedling production in Turkey
Soil borne pathogens and weeds result in a 40% yield loss in strawberry production. Aegean and Mediterranean regions are the main strawberry producing areas of Turkey where solarization is combined with reduced dosages of fumigant applications. However, fumigant application is the sole method to suppress soil borne pathogens and weeds in seedling producing areas and the effect of the application becomes unwieldy when the soil temperature is low (8-12°C). In cases of no soil disinfestation in seedling production, pest and diseases become prevalent. This study investigated the effect of soil fumigants on disease incidence, seedling number, quality and fungal presence in strawberry. The experiments were conducted during 2014-2016 in the Tuzla/Adana district where there is strawberry seedling production. Metam sodium (MS), metam potassium (MP) and chloropicrin (CP) were tested at registered (1250 L ha-1, 400 L ha-1) with polyethylene (PE) cover and ½ dosages with a virtually impenetrable film (VIF) cover. Strawberry (cultivar 'Rubygem') seedling numbers per m2 of first-year experiments were 110, 133, 135.5 and 124 for control, MS, MP, and CP registered doses with PE cover, respectively. Seedling numbers of ½ doses with VIF cover were 136.5, 133 and 126.7 for MS, MP and CP applications, respectively. Since CP was assigned to the EU prohibited list by the end of 2014 and its import has been prevented, it was not included in the second year of experimental trials. The seedling numbers of the second year experiments of control, MS, MP with PE cover were 120, 140 and 145, respectively. Similarly, those numbers with VIF applications of MS and MP were 147.5 and 122.5, respectively. Seedling number and quality were positively affected by performing two-year seedling plantation one month earlier. The effect of applications on root disease incidences were 85.7, 75.9, 31.6 and 83.9, 76.7, 33.8 for the first year and 88.7, 72.6 and 74.1, 73.4 for the second year trials, respectively. MS and MP fumigants at registered (with PE cover) and ½ dosages (with VIF cover) were effective for both of the years. Fusarium spp., Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani, and Aspergillus niger were isolated from root rot and wilting exhibiting strawberry seedlings. The advantages and disadvantages of different fumigant applications were compared and evaluated.
Yucel, S., Gunacti, H., Unlu, M.A. and Can, C. (2020). Soil disinfestation applications in strawberry seedling production in Turkey. Acta Hortic. 1270, 211-218
strawberry nursery, fumigants, root rot and wilting