Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from anther culture in grape cultivar 'Ekşi Kara' (Vitis vinifera L.)

Z. Kara, K. Yazar, H. Ekinci
'Ekşi Kara' (Vitis vinifera L.) is an ancient grapevine in middle Anatolia Turkey, utilize for table grape, dried and concentrated fruit juice. Anther culture is one of the sustainable grape breeding methods used to obtain haploid plants. The anthers isolated from a plant are based on the development of callus and plant transformation into a suitable culture media. The desired genotypes can be selected from the haploid plantlets and new cultivars can be improved. Anther culture has been studied in the 'Ekşi Kara'. Explants (0.3-1.0 mm long, pale green color) were used in the approximately single-nucleus microspore stage, which was considered optimal for the start to culture. Embryogenic culture induction occurs by placing anthers on induction medium with a dark/light photoperiod cycle for 12-16 weeks. The derived callus was transferred to N&N (macro-micro) + MS (vitamin) embryo differentiation medium. Following the embryogenic cell aggregates that was transferred to the embryo germination and plant regeneration medium. For plant regeneration, germinated embryos with hypocotyls and cotyledons and apical root axes were transferred to semi-MS medium. It was determined that the anthers found in the flower buds' corolla-covered, which have turned from the dark greenish to slightly yellow color immature flowers, were more suitable. The embryonic callus development rate was 22.86% and the embryonic calli plant conversion rate was 66.89%. Since the level of development of embryonic induction was influenced by the culture medium, in this study, it has been determined that the content of the nutrient medium has an important role in embryo development and plant regeneration in 'Ekşi Kara' (Vitis vinifera L.), and it was suitable for embryogenic calli formation and plant regeneration that can accelerate the polyploid grape breeding.
Kara, Z., Yazar, K. and Ekinci, H. (2020). Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from anther culture in grape cultivar 'Ekşi Kara' (Vitis vinifera L.). Acta Hortic. 1276, 147-154
DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2020.1276.21
autochthone grapevine, embryonic callus, plant conversion, haploid plant, grape improvement

Acta Horticulturae