Flowering and dormancy relations of raspberry and black currant and effects of management and climate warming on production
Growth cessation and floral initiation in black currant and red raspberry are jointly controlled by the interaction of temperature and short-day (SD) conditions, and the processes coincide in time in both natural and controlled environments. The critical photoperiods for the two successional responses were found to be approximately 15 and 16 h, respectively, for a range of Western-European black currant cultivars. Both cessation of growth and floral initiation are promoted and enhanced by increasing temperature in the 9 to 24°C range. In contrast, biennial-fruiting red raspberry has a maximum temperature limit for growth cessation and floral initiation. At temperatures above 16°C, most cultivars grow and remain vegetative regardless of day length conditions, at 12 to 16°C they cease growing and initiate flower primordia in photoperiods KLEINERDAN15 h, while at temperatures ≤12°C they cease growing and initiate floral primordia regardless of day length. In the annual-fruiting (primocane) types of red raspberry on the other hand, floral initiation is not constrained by high temperature, but readily takes place at temperatures up to 30°C. In addition, floral initiation is also enhanced by long day (LD) conditions in most of these cultivars. Another fundamental physiological difference is that while floral primordia of the biennial types become dormant after initiation, they proceed directly to anthesis in the annual-fruiting types. Chilling at -5°C, and in the -5 to +5°C temperature range were found to be optimal for breaking of bud dormancy and promotion of flowering in black currant and red raspberry, respectively. In black currant, 14 weeks of chilling were optimal, while for raspberry, 20 or more weeks were required for full dormancy release and promotion of flowering along the entire length of the raspberry cane. The consequences of climate warming for the production of these species in different climatic regions are discussed.
Sønsteby, A. and Heide, O.M. (2020). Flowering and dormancy relations of raspberry and black currant and effects of management and climate warming on production. Acta Hortic. 1277, 307-320
chilling requirement, cultivars, cultivation, day length, growth cessation, perennial shrubs, photoperiod, temperature