Growing English and French cider apple cultivars in Sweden
Production of alcoholic apple cider has a long tradition in especially England, France and Spain. The designated cider apple cultivars grown in these countries are closely related to dessert apples but have a higher content of phenols, with procyanidins (tannins) and possibly other phenolic compounds providing the distinct cider aroma. A recently planted observation trial, together with data collected in a commercial orchard, have provided valuable information on the feasibility of growing English and French cider apple cultivars in southern Sweden. Chemical contents (sugar, acid and phenols) were determined in fruit juice of 21 cider apple cultivars in 2016 and 2017. In spite of the delayed fruit ripening in Sweden, contents were on the whole quite similar to what has been reported previously for the same cultivars in their countries of origin. Large-scale cider production may necessitate storage of the harvested fruit for some weeks or months before juicing, and thus tolerance to storage rots is highly desirable. Despite their higher phenolics content, cider apple cultivars were somewhat more susceptible to blue mold (Penicillium exansum) than dessert cultivars, as determined in fruit inoculation experiments.
Nybom, H., Spoor, T., Sehic, J., Ekholm, A., Rumpunen, K. and Tahir, I. (2020). Growing English and French cider apple cultivars in Sweden. Acta Hortic. 1281, 9-14
blue mold, breeding, chemical contents, Malus × domestica, Penicillium expansum, phenols, tannins