Apricot breeding for late flowering in Nikita Botanical Gardens

V. Gorina, V. Korzin, N. Mesyats
Adaptation to environmental conditions is one of the main reasons limiting apricot plants introduction into various climatic zones. Cultivars characterized with late flowering most often avoid damages from spring frosts. The aim of the presented research was to study flowering dates of the apricot genotypes to select promising ones for their cultivation in areas with changeable weather conditions and also to use them in further breeding experiments. The plants of 32 cultivars and bred genotypes were studied during 2015-2017. The control cultivar was ‘Kryimskij Amur’. The most late-flowering genotypes were obtained from the cross breeding with Prunus brigantiaca Vill. (‘8103’, ‘8134’, ‘Briol 38’, ‘Briol 98’, ‘Brigmas 2’). They blossomed 12-23 days later than the cultivar of ‘Kryimskij Amur’. However, Prunus brigantiaca transmitted the traits of small and poor fruit quality characteristics to its offspring, along with the late flowering. Satisfying crossings were made and new hybrids ‘Brig’ and ‘Fregat’ were obtained. In those hybrids the quality of the fruits was improved, but the flowering dates were earlier. The genotype ‘Brig’ was characterized by large (56 g) and, tasty (4 points on a 5-point scale) orange fruits. The genotype ‘Fregat’ was characterized with cream-yellow fruits of 43 g and good taste (4.5 points). Five promising late-flowering genotypes were selected (‘Boyarin’, ‘Lyubimec Richtera’, ‘Romeo’, ‘Samarityanin’ and ‘Fiolent’). They were characterized by large fruits (50-74 g), good taste (4.1-4.7 points), 5-7 days later blooming than control cultivar and were found to be promising cultivars to changeable climatic conditions. The genotypes ‘Dzentelmen Udachi’ and ‘Zapozdalyij’, with fruits of 30-38 g and good taste (4.1-4.5 points), bloomed 10 days later than control. They were found to be valuable materials in breeding experiments aimed for the late flowering trait.
Gorina, V., Korzin, V. and Mesyats, N. (2020). Apricot breeding for late flowering in Nikita Botanical Gardens. Acta Hortic. 1282, 25-30
DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2020.1282.5
apricot, cultivars, breeding forms, late flowering, fruit characteristics

Acta Horticulturae