Productive and agronomic behaviour of new cultivars and lines of seed propagated artichoke
The artichoke crop in Spain is mainly propagated by vegetative process, using cuttings, stumps or stalks, the cultivar Blanca de Tudela with green heads being the most important. In the south of Comunidad Valenciana and Murcia it is also produced for export, from October to May, to France the cultivar Violeta de Provence with purple heads. The vegetative propagation presents physiological, pathological and financial drawbacks, for that reason this work analyses the crop possibility by new seed cultivars of artichoke. The agronomic behaviour of 8 cultivars/seed propagated lines was studied, five with green heads and three with purple ones, using as controls Blanca de Tudela, an asexually propagated cultivar. Seed propagated material was sown on May 31, 2017 and the whole plant material was transplanted on July 13, 2017, in open-field conditions in Paiporta (Valencia, Spain). A completely randomised design with 3 replications of 9 plants was performed. Besides that, all plants were sprayed three consecutive times with 30 mg L‑1 of GA3, the first date being August 25, September 8 and 22, in addition to 1 g L‑1 of foliage fertilizer. The highest early (December) total yield was achieved by A-106 (1.31 kg m‑2), Lorca (1.11 kg m‑2) and Nun 4011 (0.98 kg m‑2) and the yield for Blanca de Tudela was 0.23 kg m‑2. Among purple cultivars the biggest early total yield was obtained by Opal (0.62 kg m‑2), followed by Opera (0.60 kg m‑2) and Nun 04245 (0.47 kg m‑2). The greatest final total yield was reached by the green head cultivars/lines Nun 4011 (3.73 kg m‑2) and Madrigal (3.65 kg m‑2) and among purple colour head cultivar Opal (2.92 kg m‑2). Significant statistical differences were found regarding asexually propagated cultivar, which produced less final total yield. The highest non-commercial production was achieved with A-106 (1.26 kg m‑2) and Lorca (1.15 kg m‑2) and the least with Madrigal (0.29 kg m‑2) and Symphony (0.22 kg m‑2). The highest commercial yield was achieved by Madrigal (3.35 kg m‑2), Nun 4011 (2.84 kg m‑2) and Symphony (2.83 kg m‑2) and the least with control cultivar Blanca de Tudela (1.56 kg m‑2). The highest vigour of plants was detect in Madrigal and Opera and the lowest in the control Blanca de Tudela.
Baixauli Soria, C., Giner, A., Aguilar, J.M. and Nájera, I. (2020). Productive and agronomic behaviour of new cultivars and lines of seed propagated artichoke. Acta Hortic. 1284, 145-148
total yield, green heads, purple heads, gibberellic acid, asexually propagated