Induction of somatic and gynogenic regeneration in Tunceli garlic (Allium tuncelianum)
Allium tuncelianum (Tunceli garlic) is a diploid (2n=2x=16) endemic edible Allium species grown naturally in eastern Turkey, particularly in the Munzur mountains. It is popular among the local people of the region due to its single cloved bulb consumed like garlic. A. tuncelianum is not a true garlic and can be propagated through seeds. There is an increase in the popularity of the species as a food source and over harvesting of A. tuncelianum bulbs from nature leads to genetic erosion. Tissue culture-based biotechnological methods could be utilized in mass propagation and genetic improvement of this valuable Allium species. A set of experiments were carried out by culturing about 6000 whole flower bud explants collected from greenhouse-grown plants of A. tuncelianum in various media. After two months in culture, flower buds grew about five times their original size. Overall, somatic and gynogenic regeneration were low. Somatic calli were developed from basal parts of the buds cultured in media containing a cytokinin- or cytokinin and auxin-type plant growth regulator (PGR) combinations. Calli were developed from ~1.5% of the buds. However, only six somatic shoots could be produced. Gynogenic regeneration was observed in media containing a combination of cytokinin and auxin-type PGR combinations. We obtained three gynogenic plantlets from buds cultured on MS- and BDS-based media. Our results show that A. tuncelianum is a recalcitrant species and new tissue culture strategies have to be developed in order to improve somatic and gynogenic plant regeneration.
Kaska, A., Celebi-Toprak, F. and Alan, A.R. (2020). Induction of somatic and gynogenic regeneration in Tunceli garlic (Allium tuncelianum). Acta Hortic. 1285, 231-234
Allium tuncelianum, gynogenesis, recalcitrant, somatic