Aromatic rose cultivars in the collection of the Nikitsky Botanical Gardens
The principal areas of essential oil rose cultivation in the Soviet Union were in the Crimea, Moldova and Krasnodar region. The part of the Crimea was equal to 40% of the essential oil rose production in the Soviet Union. In 1926 (91 years ago) in the Nikitsky Botanical Gardens the first essential oil rose cultivar Krymskaya Krasnaya, was originated by the method of an individual selection from Rosa galica L. seedlings. As a result, during 1930s-70s the most active breeding works were carried out in the Nikitsky Botanical Gardens, and 10 cultivars of oil-bearing roses were created: Krymskaya Krasnaya (1926), Ukraine (1964), Tavrida (1964), Aromatnaya (1964), Festivalnaya (1965), Iyulskaya (1967), Jalita (1967), Vilena (1969), Slava (1979), Olympia (1979). In the Crimea, some plots with varietal plantings of oil-bearing rose has survived: on the fields of Alushta Essential Oil Factory in village Izobilnoye; in village Nauchnoe (Bakhchisarai Raion) 2.5-3.0 ha; on the experimental sections of AUSRIEOC (Simferopol, Belogorsky District). At present, the collection of oil-bearing rose cultivar in the Nikitsky Botanical Gardens and AUSRIEOC have been restoring. The data on oil-bearing rose cultivar morphology, phenology and essential oil yields have been collecting. Tavrida, (Rosa damascena Mill.) is relatively a frost-resistant cultivar (in winter with a slight snow cover it withstands the temperature -20 to -25°С). It is also resistant to powdery mildew. A shrub varies in shape from compact to medium spreading, with the height 140-170 cm. There are 4-9 pale pink terry flowers per brush, which are 7.4 cm in diameter. The weight of a flower is 4.1 g. The yield of flowers is 1814.1 kg ha‑1. Festivalnaya (Rosa damascena Mill. × Rosa gallica L.) is a winter hardy cultivar, which grows well on the carbonate soils. It is resistant to chlorosis, rust and powdery mildew. A shrub is medium-compact, 150-170 cm height. Flowers are collected in a brush of 8-16 ones, their average size is 6.2 cm in diameter, they are terry, with pink-red petals. The average weight of a flower is 3.8 g. The yield of flowers is 1649.2 kg ha‑1.
Marko, N.V., Khlypenko, L.A. and Plugatar, Yu.V. (2020). Aromatic rose cultivars in the collection of the Nikitsky Botanical Gardens. Acta Hortic. 1287, 41-48
Rosa damascena Mill., Rosa gallica L., collection, variety yields flowers